is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This gene is closely linked to related family member T-box 3 (ulnar mammary syndrome) on human chromosome 12. The encoded protein may play a role in heart development and specification of limb identity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Holt-Oram syndrome, a developmental disorder affecting the heart and upper limbs. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.From the critical region they likewise isolated a gene with a high degree of homology to mouse Tbx5 and identified several mutations in TBX5 in affected members of HOS families.