Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including most anaerobic organisms. Due to resistance and safety concerns, it is no longer a first-line agent for any infection in developed nations, with the notable exception of topical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Nevertheless, the global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in its use. In low-income countries, chloramphenicol is still widely used because it is inexpensive and readily available. The most serious adverse effect associated with chloramphenicol treatment is bone marrow toxicity, which may occur in two distinct forms: bone marrow suppression, which is a direct toxic effect of the drug and is usually reversible, and aplastic anemia, which is idiosyncratic (rare, unpredictable, and unrelated to dose) and generally fatal.
Organism species: Pan-species (General)
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